Guía de práctica clínica para el tratamiento farmacológico y psicológico de los pacientes adultos con un trastorno del espectro esquizofrénico y un diagnóstico comórbido de trastorno por uso de sustancias

Belen Arranz, Marina Garriga, Miquel Bernardo, Ana Gonzalez-Pinto, Manuel Arrojo, Marta Torrens, Judith Tirado-Muñoz, Francina Fonseca, Pilar A. Saiz, Gerardo Florez, Jose Manuel Goikolea, Iñaki Zorrilla, Ruth Cunill, Xavi Castells, Elisardo Becoña, Ana Lopez, Luis San

Resumen


Aunque el correcto diagnóstico y manejo de los pacientes con esquizofrenia y un diagnóstico comórbido de trastorno por uso de sustancias (TUS) determinaría una disminución de la morbilidad y mortalidad en estos pacientes, el desarrollo de estrategias terapéuticas eficientes es todavía una asignatura pendiente. Presentamos recomendaciones sobre el manejo farmacológico y psicológico de estos pacientes siguiendo la estructura PICO (Paciente-Intervención-Comparación-Outcome/resultados). Realizamos una evaluación de la calidad de los estudios y un resumen de la evidencia para cada pregunta siguiendo las recomendaciones del grupo de trabajo GRADE («Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation»). Nuestros resultados sugieren: 1) En pacientes con esquizofrenia y trastorno por consumo de cannabis, no es posible recomendar un fármaco antipsicótico sobre otro (entre olanzapina, risperidona o haloperidol) para mejorar los síntomas psicóticos, reducir el consumo de cannabis o mejorar las variables pragmáticas (recomendación débil). No se puede recomendar la clozapina para reducir el consumo de cannabis (recomendación débil). 2) En pacientes con esquizofrenia y trastorno por consumo de cocaína, recomendamos haloperidol sobre olanzapina para reducir el craving (recomendación moderada) y olanzapina sobre haloperidol para mejorar los efectos secundarios motores en estos pacientes (recomendación moderada). 3) En pacientes con esquizofrenia y trastorno por consumo de alcohol, mientras que se recomienda naltrexona para reducir el consumo de alcohol (en términos de reducción del craving de alcohol) (recomendación débil), no hay evidencia suficiente para hacer ninguna recomendación sobre el uso de acamprosato como adyuvante (recomendación débil). 4) En pacientes con esquizofrenia y trastorno por consumo de nicotina, se recomiendan bupropión y vareniclina adyuvantes para reducir el consumo y la abstinencia de nicotina (recomendación fuerte/moderada). 5) En pacientes con esquizofrenia y trastorno por policonsumo, se recomiendan antipsicóticos de segunda generación sobre los de primera generación y olanzapina sobre otros antipsicóticos de segunda generación para mejorar los síntomas psicóticos (recomendación moderada/débil).

Palabras clave


Esquizofrenia; Consumo de sustancias; Comórbido; Patología dual; Antipsicótico; Cannabis; Cocaína; Alcohol; Nicotina.

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1504

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