Factores predictores del consumo de alcohol en adolescentes: datos de un estudio prospectivo de 1 año de seguimiento

Matilde Bousoño Serrano, Susana Al-Halabí, Patricia Burón, Marlen Garrido, Eva Mª Díaz-Mesa, Gonzalo Galván, Leticia García-Álvarez, Ángela Velasco, Camilla Wasserman, Vladimir Carli, Christina Hoven, Marco Sarchiapone, Danuta Wasserman, Manuel Bousoño, Mª Paz García-Portilla, Celso Iglesias, Pilar Alejandra Sáiz, Julio Bobes


El uso/abuso de alcohol es un problema de salud en los adolescentes. La última Encuesta sobre uso de drogas en Enseñanzas Secundarias realizada en España (ESTUDES 2014-2015), pone de manifiesto que 76,8% de los adolescentes entre 14 y 18 años consumieron alcohol en el último año y 68,2% en el último mes. El principal objetivo es determinar los factores que se asocian con el consumo de alcohol a medio plazo en una muestra de adolescentes españoles. El estudio forma parte del proyecto Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). La muestra final estuvo compuesta por 708 estudiantes, evaluados en dos momentos temporales [basal (T0) y al año (T1)] [varones: 51,98%, edad media basal (DE)=4,43 (0,67)]. Se realizaron análisis de regresión univariante y multivariante, con el fin de investigar las relaciones entre posibles variables predictoras descritas en el momento temporal T0 y el consumo de alcohol en el momento T1.En el momento basal (T0) la prevalencia de abuso de alcohol fue del 25,56%, mientras que la prevalencia al año fue del 49,72% (T1). Las variables que predicen de forma significativa el abuso de alcohol al cabo de un año son: abuso previo del alcohol en el momento T0 (p< 0,001), abuso previo de drogas (p=0,011), padres que asisten a sus competiciones deportivas (p=0,005), problemas de relación con compañeros (p=0,019) y ausencia de comportamiento prosocial (p=0,043). A la vista de nuestros resultados se puede concluir que, en adolescentes, los trastornos externalizantes parecen ser factores determinantes de consumo de alcohol a medio plazo.

Palabras clave

Adolescentes; Consumo de Alcohol; Factores predictores; Estudio prospectivo

Texto completo:

PDF PDF (English)


Abrantes, A. M., Brown, S. A. y Tomlinson, K. L. (2003). Psychiatric comorbidity among inpatient substance abusing adolescents. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 13, 83-101. doi:10.1300/J029v13n02_04.

Bachman, J., O’Malley, P. M., Schulenberg, J. E., Johnston, L., Freedman-Doan, P. y Messersmith. E. E. (2008). The Education–Drug Use Connection: How Successes and Failures in School Relate to Adolescent Smoking, Drinking, Drug Use, and Delinquency. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Recuperado de http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/abs/4465.

Barnes, G. M., Reifman, A. S., Farrell, M. P. y Dintcheff, B. A. (2000). The effects of parenting on the development of adolescent alcohol misuse: A six-wave latent Growth model. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 175-186. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00175.x.

Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., Ball, R. y Ranieri, W. (1996). Comparison of Beck Depression Inventories -IA and -II in psychiatric outpatients. Journal of Personality Assessment, 67, 588-597. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa6703_13.

Bifulco, A., Schimmenti, A., Jacobs, C., Bunn, A. y Rusu, A. C. (2014). Risk factors and psychological outcomes of bullying victimization: A community-based study. Child Indicators Research, 7, 633-648. doi:10.1007/s12187-014-9236-8.

Bousoño, M., Al-Halabí, S., Burón, P., Garrido, M., Díaz-Mesa, E. M., Galván, G.,… Bobes, J. (2017). Uso y abuso de sustancias psicotrópicas e internet, psicopatología e ideación suicida en adolescentes. Adicciones, 29, 97-104. doi:10.20882/adicciones.811.

Brook, D. W., Brook, J. S., Zhang, C., Cohen, P. y Whiteman, M. (2002). Drug use and the risk of major depressive disorder, alcohol dependence, and substance use disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 1039-1044.

Brown, S. A., McGue, M., Maggs, J., Schulenberg, J., Hingson, R., Swartzwelder, S.,… Murphy, S. (2008). A developmental perspective on alcohol and youths 16 to 20 years of age. Pediatrics, 121, S290-310. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-2243D.

Brown, S. A. (1993). Recovery patterns in adolescent substance abuse. En Addictive behaviors across the life span: Prevention, treatment, and policy issues, (Baer, John Samuel (Ed); Marlatt, G. Alan (Ed); McMahon, Robert Joseph (Ed). (1993)., p. (161-183).). Thousand Oaks, CA. Recuperado de http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1993-97504-007.

Brown, T. N., Schulenberg, J., Bachman, J. G., O’Malley, P. M. y Johnston, L. D. (2001). Are risk and protective factors for substance use consistent across historical time? : National data from the high school classes of 1976 through 1997. Prevention Science, 2, 29-43.

Byrne, B. M., Stewart, S. M. y Lee, P. W. H. (2004). Validating the beck depression inventory-II for Hong Kong Community Adolescents. International Journal of Testing, 4, 199-216. doi:10.1207/s15327574ijt0403_1.

Caravaca, F., Navarro-Zaragoza, J., Luna, A., Falcón, M. y Luna, A. (2017). Asociación entre victimización por bullying y consumo de sustancias entre la población universitaria de España. Adicciones, 29, 22-32. /doi:10.20882/adicciones.827.

Carli, V., Wasserman, C., Wasserman, D., Sarchiapone, M., Apter, A., Balazs, J.,… Hoven, C. W. (2013). The saving and empowering young lives in Europe (SEYLE) randomized controlled trial (RCT): methodological issues and participant characteristics. BMC Public Health, 13, 479. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-479.

Carli, V., Hoven, C. W., Wasserman, C., Chiesa, F., Guffanti, G., Sarchiapone, M.,… Wasserman, D. (2014). A newly identified group of adolescents at “invisible” risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study. World Psychiatry, 13, 78-86. doi: 10.1002/wps.20088.

Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Newman, D. L. y Silva, P. A. (1996). Behavioral observations at age 3 years predict adult psychiatric disorders. Longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 1033-1039. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830110071009.

Champion, H. L. O., Foley, K. L., DuRant, R. H., Hensberry, R., Altman, D. y Wolfson, M. (2004). Adolescent sexual victimization, use of alcohol and other substances, and other health risk behaviors. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 35, 321-328. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2003.09.023.

Coie, J., Terry, R., Lenox, K., Lochman, J. y Hyman, C. (1995). Childhood peer rejection and aggression as predictors of stable patterns of adolescent disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 697-713. doi:10.1017/S0954579400006799.

Deckel, A. W., Bauer, L. y Hesselbrock, V. (1995). Anterior brain dysfunctioning as a risk factor in alcoholic behaviors. Addiction, 90, 1323-1334. doi: 10.1046/j.1360-0443.1995.901013234.x.

Dever, B. V., Schulenberg, J. E., Dworkin, J. B., O’Malley, P. M., Kloska, D. D. y Bachman, J. G. (2012). Predicting risk-taking with and without substance use: the effects of parental monitoring, school bonding, and sports participation. Prevention Science, 13, 605-615. doi:10.1007/s11121-012-0288-z.

DeVore, E. R. y Ginsburg, K. R. (2005). The protective effects of good parenting on adolescents. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 17, 460-465.

DeWit, D. J., Adlaf, E. M., Offord, D. R. y Ogborne, A. C. (2000). Age at first alcohol use: a risk factor for the development of alcohol disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 745–750. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.157.5.745.

Ehlers, C. L., Slutske, W. S., Gilder, D. A., Lau, P. y Wilhelmsen, K. C. (2006). Age at first intoxication and alcohol use disorders in Southwest California Indians. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 30, 1856-1865. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00222.x.

Fletcher, A. C., Steinberg, L. y Williams-Wheeler, M. (2004). Parental influences on adolescent problem behavior: revisiting Stattin and Kerr. Child Development, 75, 781-796. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00706.x.

Golpe, S., Gómez, P., Braña, T., Varela, J. y Rial, A. (2017). Relación entre el consumo de alcohol y otras drogas y el uso problemático de Internet en adolescentes. Adicciones. 29, 256-267. doi:10.20882/adicciones.959.

Golpe, S., Isorna, M., Barreiro, C., Braña, T. y Rial, A. (2017). Consumo intensivo de alcohol en adolescentes: prevalencia, conductas de riesgo y variables asociadas. Adicciones, 29, 268-277. doi:10.20882/adicciones.932.

Goodman, R., Meltzer, H. y Bailey, V. (2003). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: a pilot study on the validity of the self-report version. International Review of Psychiatry, 15, 173-177. doi:10.1080/0954026021000046137.

Green, M. J., Leyland, A. H., Sweeting, H. y Benzeval, M. (2013). Socioeconomic position and adolescent trajectories in smoking, drinking, and psychiatric distress. The Journal of Adolescent Health53, 202–208.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.02.023.

Gueorguieva, R., Wu, R., O’Connor, P. G., Weisner, C., Fucito, L. M., Hoffmann, S.,… O’Malley, S. S. (2014). Predictors of abstinence from heavy drinking during treatment in COMBINE and external validation in PREDICT. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 38, 2647-2656. doi:10.1111/acer.12541.

Hibell, B., Guttormsson, U., Ahlström, S., Balakireva, O., Bjarnason, T., Kokkevi, A. y Kraus, L. (2012). The 2011 ESPAD Report: Substance Use Among Students in 36 European Countries. Sweden: The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN). Recuperado de http://www.can.se/contentassets/8d8cb78bbd28493b9030c65c598e3301/the_2011_espad_report_ full.pdf.

Hill, K. G., White, H. R., Chung, I. J., Hawkins, J. D. y Catalano, R. F. (2000). Early adult outcomes of adolescent binge drinking: person- and variable-centered analyses of binge drinking trajectories. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 24, 892-901. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2000.tb02071.x.

Hingson, R. W., Zha, W. y Weitzman, E. R. (2009). Magnitude of and trends in alcohol-related mortality and morbidity among U.S. college students ages 18-24, 1998-2005. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, Supplement 16, 12-20.

Jessor, R. (1991). Risk behavior in adolescence: a psychosocial framework for understanding and action. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 12, 597-605.

Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Miech, R. A., Bachman, J. G. y Schulenberg, J. E. (2016). Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2015: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan. Recuperado de http://monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/mtf-overview2015.pdf.

Johnston, L. D., Bachman, J. G. y Schulenberg, J.  E.  (2012). Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2011. (Vol. Volume I: Secondary School Students.). Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan; 2012. Recuperado de http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/mtf-vol1_2011.pdf.

Kandel, D. B., Johnson, J. G., Bird, H. R., Weissman, M. M., Goodman, S. H., Lahey, B. B.,… Schwab-Stone, M. E. (1999). Psychiatric comorbidity among adolescents with substance use disorders: findings from the MECA Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 693-699. doi:10.1097/00004583-199906000-00016.

Kim, M. S., Kim, J. J. y Kwon, J. S. (2001). Frontal P300 decrement and executive dysfunction in adolescents with conduct problems. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 3, 93-106. doi:10.1023/A:1012299822274.

Kuntsche, E., Gabhainn, S.N., Roberts, C., Windlin, B., Vieno, A., Bendtsen, P., … Wicki, M. (2014). Drinking motives and links to alcohol use in 13 European countries. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 75, 428–437. doi:10.15288/jsad.2014.75.428.

Laird, R. D., Jordan, K. Y., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S. y Bates, J. E. (2001). Peer rejection in childhood, involvement with antisocial peers in early adolescence, and the development of externalizing behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 337-354.

Lanza, S. T. y Collins, L. M. (2006). A mixture model of discontinuous development in heavy drinking from ages 18 to 30: the role of college enrollment. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67, 552-561. doi:10.15288/jsa.2006.67.552.

Lopez Villalba, F. J., Rodriguez Garcia, P. L., Garcia Canto, E. y Perez Soto, J. J. (2016). Relationship between sport and physical activity and alcohol consumption among adolescents students in Murcia (Spain). Archivos Argentinos de Pediatria, 114, 101-106. doi:10.5546/aap.2016.eng.101.

Marmorstein, N. R., Iacono, W. G. y Malone, S. M. (2010). Longitudinal associations between depression and substance dependence from adolescence through early adulthood. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 107, 154-160. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.10.002.

Maslowsky, J. y Schulenberg, J. E. (2013). Interaction matters: quantifying conduct problem x depressive symptoms interaction and its association with adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in a national sample. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 1029-1043. doi:10.1017/S0954579413000357.

McCambridge, J., McAlaney, J. y Rowe, R. (2011). Adult consequences of late adolescent alcohol consumption: a systematic review of cohort studies. PLoS Medicine, 8, e1000413. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000413.

O’Malley, P. M. y Johnston, L. D. (2002). Epidemiology of alcohol and other drug use among American college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Supplement 14, 23-39.

Patrick, M. E. y Schulenberg, J. E. (2010). Alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking prevalence and predictors among national samples of American eighth- and tenth-grade students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71, 41-45.

Patrick, M. E., Yeomans-Maldonado, G. y Griffin, J. (2016). Daily reports of positive and negative affect and alcohol and marijuana use among college student and nonstudent young adults. Substance Use & Misuse, 51, 54-61. doi:10.3109/10826084.2015.1074694.

Paykel, E. S., Myers, J. K., Lindenthal, J. J. y Tanner, J. (1974). Suicidal feelings in the general population: a prevalence study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 124, 460-469. doi:10.1192/bjp.124.5.460.

Pesola, F., Shelton, K. H., Heron, J., Munafo, M., Hickman, M. y van den Bree, M. B. M. (2015). The developmental relationship between depressive symptoms in adolescence and harmful drinking in emerging adulthood: The role of peers and parents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44, 1752-1766. doi:10.1007/s10964-015-0295-z.

Pesola, F., Shelton, K. H., Heron, J., Munafo, M., Maughan, B., Hickman, M. y van den Bree, M. B. M. (2015). The mediating role of deviant peers on the link between depressed mood and harmful drinking. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 56, 153-159. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.10.268.

Pilgrim, C. C., Schulenberg, J. E., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G. y Johnston, L. D. (2006). Mediators and moderators of parental involvement on substance use: a national study of adolescents. Prevention Science, 7, 75-89. doi:10.1007/s11121-005-0019-9.

Pitkänen, T., Lyyra, A. L. y Pulkkinen, L. (2005). Age of onset of drinking and the use of alcohol in adulthood: a follow-up study from age 8-42 for females and males. Addiction, 100, 652–661. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01053.x. 

Plan Nacional sobre Drogas. (2016). Encuesta sobre el uso de drogas en enseñanzas secundarias en España (ESTUDES) 2014-2015. Madrid, España: Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad. Recuperado de http://www.pnsd.msssi.gob.es/profesionales/sistemasInformacion/sistemaInformacion/pdf/2016_ESTUDES_2014-2015.pdf.

Poulin, C., Hand, D., Boudreau, B. y Santor, D. (2005). Gender differences in the association between substance use and elevated depressive symptoms in a general adolescent population. Addiction, 100, 525-535. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01033.x.

Richter, M., Kuntsche, E., de Looze, M. y Pförtner, T. K. (2013). Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent alcohol use in Germany between 1994 and 2006. Int J Public Health, 58, 777–784. doi:10.1007/s00038-013-0486-x. 

Romero, E., Rodríguez, C., Villar, P. y Gómez-Fraguela, X. A. (2017). Intervención sobre problemas de conducta tempranos como prevención indicada del consumo de drogas: Siete años de seguimiento. Adicciones, 29, 150-162. doi:10.20882/adicciones.722.

Rüütel, E., Sisask, M., Värnik, A., Värnik, P., Carli, V., Wasserman, C.,… Wasserman, D. (2014). Alcohol consumption patterns among adolescents are related to family structure and exposure to drunkenness within the family: Results from the SEYLE Project. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11, 12700-12715. doi:10.3390/ijerph111212700.

Sajber, D., Tahiraj, E., Zenic, N., Peric, M. y Sekulic, D. (2016). Alcohol drinking among Kosovar adolescents: An examination of gender-specific sociodemographic, sport, and familial factors associated with harmful drinking. Substance Use & Misuse, 51, 533-539. doi:10.3109/10826084.2015.1122064.

Saraceno, L., Heron, J., Munafo, M., Craddock, N. y van den Bree, M. B. M. (2012). The relationship between childhood depressive symptoms and problem alcohol use in early adolescence: findings from a large longitudinal population-based study. Addiction, 107, 567-577. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03662.x.

Schulenberg, J., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Wadsworth, K. N. y Johnston, L. D. (1996). Getting drunk and growing up: trajectories of frequent binge drinking during the transition to young adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 57, 289-304.

Sobeck, J., Abbey, A., Agius, E., Clinton, M. y Harrison, K. (2000). Predicting early adolescent substance use: do risk factors differ depending on age of onset? Journal of Substance Abuse, 11, 89-102. doi:10.1016/S0899-3289(99)00022-X. 

Tahiraj, E., Cubela, M., Ostojic, L., Rodek, J., Zenic, N., Sekulic, D. y Lesnik, B. (2016). Prevalence and factors associated with substance use and misuse among Kosovar adolescents; Cross sectional study of scholastic, familial, and sports-related factors of influence. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13, E502. doi:10.3390/ijerph13050502.

Terry-McElrath, Y. M., O’Malley, P. M. y Johnston, L. D. (2011). Exercise and substance use among American youth, 1991-2009. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 40, 530-540. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2010.12.021.

Tilton-Weaver, L. C., Burk, W. J., Kerr, M. y Stattin, H. (2013). Can parental monitoring and peer management reduce the selection or influence of delinquent peers? Testing the question using a dynamic social network approach. Developmental Psychology, 49, 2057-2070. doi:10.1037/a0031854.

Vanyukov, M. M., Tarter, R. E., Kirisci, L., Kirillova, G. P., Maher, B. S. y Clark, D. B. (2003). Liability to substance use disorders: 1. Common mechanisms and manifestations. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 27, 507-515. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2003.08.002.

Wallace, J. M., Yamaguchi, R., Bachman, J. G., O’Malley, P. M., Schulenberg, J. E. y Johnston, L. D. (2007). Religiosity and adolescent substance use: The role of individual and contextual influences. Social Problems, 54, 308-327. doi:10.1525/sp.2007.54.2.308.

Wasserman, C., Hoven, C. W., Wasserman, D., Carli, V., Sarchiapone, M., Al-Halabi, S.,… Postuvan, V. (2012). Suicide prevention for youth--a mental health awareness program: lessons learned from the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) intervention study. BMC Public Health, 12, 776. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-776.

Wasserman, D., Carli, V., Wasserman, C., Apter, A., Balazs, J., Bobes, J.,… Hoven, C. W. (2010). Saving and empowering young lives in Europe (SEYLE): a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 10, 192. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-192.

Wells, J. E., Horwood, L. J. y Fergusson, D. M. (2004). Drinking patterns in mid-adolescence and psychosocial outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood. Addiction, 99, 1529-1541. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00918.x.

White, H. R., Johnson, V. y Buyske, S. (2000). Parental modeling and parenting behavior effects on offspring alcohol and cigarette use. A growth curve analysis. Journal of Substance Abuse, 12, 287-310.

White, H. R., Labouvie, E. W. y Papadaratsakis, V. (2005). Changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood: A comparison of college students and their noncollege age peers. Journal of Drug Issues, 35, 281-306. doi:10.1177/002204260503500204.

Wilsnack, R. W., Vogeltanz, N. D., Wilsnack, S. C., Harris, T. R., Ahlstrom, S., Bondy, S.,… Weiss, S. (2000). Gender differences in alcohol consumption and adverse drinking consequences: cross-cultural patterns. Addiction, 95, 251-265.

World Health Organization. (2014). Global status report on alcohol and health 2014. Genova: World Health Organization.

World Health Organization. (2015). Global School-Based Student Health Survey. Recuperado de http://www.who.int/chp/gshs/GSHS_Questionnaire_Core_2009_Spanish.pdf.

Wray-Lake, L., Maggs, J. L., Johnston, L. D., Bachman, J. G., O’Malley, P. M. y Schulenberg, J. E. (2012). Associations between community attachments and adolescent substance use in nationally representative samples. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 51, 325-331. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.12.030.

Yaogo, A., Fombonne, E., Lert, F. y Melchior, M. (2015). Adolescent repeated alcohol intoxication as a predictor of young adulthood alcohol abuse: The role of socioeconomic context. Substance Use & Misuse, 50, 1795-1804. doi:10.3109/10826084.2015.1058824.

Zung, W. W. (1971). A rating instrument for anxiety disorders. Psychosomatics, 12, 371-379. doi:10.1016/S0033-3182(71)71479-0.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.998

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.