Drogadicción y Prevención familiar: una política para Europa

Fernando J. Mendes


Se discute la necesidad de adoptar lo más rápidamente posible una política europea de prevención primaria de las drogadicciones a nivel familiar. El concepto de familia, su organización y estructura son hoy puestos en causa, tal y como los modelos y prácticas educativas. Se apunta hacia un mayor conocimiento y mayor investigación en este campo de la familia que permitirá el delineamiento de programas de prevención más precisos y eficientes en el futuro. 

Se aborda igualmente la discusión en torno al concepto de prevención primaria y de los modelos teóricos que son la base de las prácticas preventivas, teniendo en cuenta los objetivos a alcanzar y las estrategias a utilizar.

Finalmente, a partir del resultado de una investigación del IREFREA en 4 países europeos (Portugal, España, Francia, Italia) se propone la elaboración de un Vademecum europeo sobre prácticas preventivas en Europa.

Palabras clave

prevención primaria; prevención familiar; familia; factores de protección; factores de riesgo; políticas preventivas

Texto completo:



Ahmed S.W.; Bush P.; Davidson, F.R. and Iannotti R.J. (1984). Predicting children’s use and Intentions to use Abusable substances. Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, Anaheim, CA, November.

Barnes G.; and Welte J.(1986). Patterns and predictors of alcohol use among 1-12th grade students in New York State. Stud Alcohol 47: 53-62.

Baumrind D.(1983). Specious causal attributions in the social sciences: The reformulated stepping-stone. Theory of heroin use as examplar. Journal of Personality and social Psychology, 45: 1289-1289.

Baumrind D. (1980). New directons in socialization research. American Psychologist, 35: 639-650.

Baumrind D. and Moselle K.A.(1985). A developmental perspective on adolescent drug abuse. Adv. Alcohol. Subst. Abuse 4: 41-67.

Bergeret J. (1982). Toxicomanie et Personalité. Presses Universitaires de France. Paris.

Brook J.S., Whiteman M., Nomura C.,Gordon A.S. and Cohen P (1988). Personality, family and ecological influences on adolescent drug use: A developmental analysis. Adv. Alcohol Subst. Abuse. 5: 123-161.

Brook J.S., Gordon A.S., Whiteman M. and Cohen P.(1986). Some models and mechanisms for explaining the impact of maternal and adolescent characteristics on adolescent stage of drug use. Developmental Psychology. 22: 460-477..

Brook J.S., Brook D.W., Gordon A.S., Whiteman M. and Cohen, P. (1990). The psychosocial etiology of adolescence drug use: A family interactional approach. Genetic, Social and general Psychology Monographs. 116: 111-267.

Calafat A. (1995). Los factores de riesgo como fundamento de programas preventivos. E. Becoña, A.Rodrigues e I. Salazar. Drogodependencias. 4. Prevención: 75-103. Santiago de Compostela: Servicio de Publicaciones e Intercambio Científico de la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela.

Calafat A. (1998). Hacia una prevención institucionalizada y cientifica. Adicciones, Vol.10, nº 4: 291-297.

Coie et al. (1993). The Science of Prevention. A Conceptual Framework and Some Directions for a National Research Program. American Psychologist. Oct. 1993: 1013-1022.

Duncan T.E., Duncan S.C., Hops,H. and Stoolmiller M.(1995). An analysis of the relationship between parent and adolescent marijuana use via generalised estimating equation methodology. Multivariate Behav Pres 30 (3): 317-339.

Farrington D.P., Gallagher B.,Morley L., Ledger R.J., and West D.J.(1985). Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development: Longterm follow-up. First Annual Report to the Home Ofice, August,13 Cambridge: Cambridge University, Institute of Criminology.

Gabel S. and SchindledeckerR.(1991). Agressive behavior in youth: Characteristics, outcome and psychiatric diagnosis. Journal American Academie Child Adolescence Psychiatry. 30(6):982-988.

Gordon R. (1987). An operational classification of disease prevention. In: Steinberg J.A., and Silverman M.M.. Eds. Preventing Mental Disorders. Rockville, MD: U.S Department of Health and Human Services, Graig G.J.(1996). Desarrollo psicologico 7 ed. Mexico: Prince- Hall Hispanoamericana.

Hawkins J.D., Catalano R.F. and Miller J.Y.(1992). Risk and protetive factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychol. Bull. 112(1): 64-105.

Hirschi T.(1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Hundleby J.D. and Mercer G.W. (1987). Family and Friends as Social Environments and their Relationship to Young Adolescents’Use of Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 44: 125-134.

Jessor R. et Jessor, S.L. (1977). Problem behaviour and psychosocial development: A longitudinal study of youth. New York: Academic Press.

Jessor R., Donovan J.E. and Windmer K.(1980). Psychosocial Factors in Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use: The 1980 National Sample Study and the 1974-78 Penal Study. Unpublished final report. Boulder: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.

Kaplan H.B.(1995). Drugs, Crime and other Deviant Adaptations. Longitudinal Studies. New York: Plenum.

Kim S. (1979). An Evaluation of Ombudsman Primary Prevention Program on Student Drug Abuse. Charlotte, N.C.:Charlotte Drug Education Center.

Kumpfer K.L. (1995). Access to hard-to-reach women: Interventions as confounds or startegy. In: Jones,C. and De la Rosa, M.; eds. National Institute on Drug Abuse Tachnical Review: Methodological Issues: Etiology and Consequences of Drug Abuse Among Women. Silver Spring, M.D. N.I.D.A..

Kumpfer K.L. (1996).Selective Preventive Interventions: The Strengthening Families Program”.Paper presented at the National Insitute on Drug Abuse Technical Review onDrug Abuse Prevention Through Family Interventions, Gaithersburg, MD. January 25-26.

Maccoby E.E. (1984). Socialization and developmental change. Child Development,55, 317 - 328

Maccoby E.E. e Martin J.A. (1983). Socializations in the contest of the family: Parent-child interactions. Em P.H. Mussen ( Ed.) Handbook of child psychology. Vol.4. Socialization, personality and social development. New York: Wiley.

Maccoby E.E. ( 1992 ). The role of parents in the socialization of children: A historic overview. Developmental Psychology. 28: 1006-1017.

Martín E.. La prevención en Espagña hoy: Propuesta de consenso institucional, técnico y social. En Plan National sobre Drogas (Ed.) Prevención de las drogodependencias. Análisis y propuestas de actuación (pp. 67-84).Madrid: Delegación del Gobierno para el Plan Nacional sobre Drogas, Ministerio del Interior.

McCarthy W.J. and Anglin M.D.(1990). Narcotics addicts: Effet of family and parental risk factors on timing of emancipation drug use onset, pre-addiction incarcerations and educational achievement. Journal of Drug Issues. 20 (1): 99-123.

Mendes F., Relvas A.P.. Lourenço M., Reccio j. l. , Pietralunga S. Broyer G. Bussac M.H., Calafat A., Stocco P. (1999). Family Relationships and Primary Prevention of Drug Use in Early Adolescence. Eds IREFREA.

MeriKangas K.R., Decker L., Fenton B. (1998). Family Factors and substance abuse: implications for prevention. NIDA Research Monograph.177: 12-41.

Molgaard V. and Kumpfer K.L.(1995). The Iowa Strenghtening Families Program for Families with Pre and Early Teens. Iowa State University, Ames IA.

Molina B.S.G., Chassin L., and Curran P.J.(1994). A comparaison of mechanism underlying substance use for early adolescent children of alcoholics and controls. Stud Alcohol. 55: 269-275.

Patricio L.D.B. (1997). Face à Droga como (Re)Agir. S.P.T.T. (Eds.). Lisboa.

Patricio L.D.B. (1998). Familia e Toxicodependência. Paper presented at IREFREA seminar in Coimbra. Penning M. and Barnes G.E.(1982). Adolescent Marijuana Use: A review. International Journal of Addictions 17: 749-91.

Patterson G.R.(1986). Performance models for antisocial boys. Am Psychol.. 41: 432-444.

Reilly D.M. (1979). Family Factors in the Etiology and Treatment of Youthfull Drug Abuse. Family Therapy.11: 149-71.

Robins L.N. and Przybeck T.R.(1985). Age on onset of drug use as a factor in drug use and other disorders, in: Jones,C.L. and Battjes, R.J., eds. Etiology of Drug Abuse: Implications for Prevention. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph 56. DHHS,Pub.No.(ADM) 85-1335. Washington,DC: Sup. Of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print-Off., 1985, pp 178-193.

Roosa M.W., Beals J., Sandler I.N. and Pillow D.R.(1990). The role of risk and protective factors in predicting symptomotology in adolescent self-identified children of alcoholic parents. American Journal Community Psychologie.18: 725-741.

Rutter M. and Giller (1983). Juvenil Delinquency: Trends and Perspectives. New York: Penguin.

Selnow,G.W. (1987). Parent-Child Relationships in Single and two Parent Families: Implications for substance usage. Journal of Drug Education.17: 315-26.

Shedler J. and Block J.(1990). Adolescent Drug use and psychological health: A longitudinal inquiry. Am. Psychol..45(5): 612-630.

Simcha-Fagan O.,Gersten J.C. and Langner T.S. (1986). Early Precursors and Concurrent Correlators of Patterns of Ilicit Drug use. In Adolescence Journal of Drug Issues. 16: 7-28.

Szapocznik J. (1996). “Scientific findings that have emerged from family intervention research at the Spanish Family Guidance Center and the Center for Family Studies”. Paper presented at the N.I.D.A. Technical Review on Drug Abuse Prevention Through Family Interventions, Gaithersburg, MD, January 25-26

Webster-Stratton C. (1981). Modification of mother’s behaviors and attitudes trough video tape modeling group discussion. Behav. Ther. 12: 634-642.

Webster-Stratton C. (1981). Videotaping modeling: A method of parenting education. J. Clin. Child Psychol.. 10: 93-97. Webster-Stratton C. (1982). Long-term effects of a video-tape modeling parent education program: Comparison of immediate and 1-year follow-up results. Behav. Ther. 13: 712-714.

Webster-Stratton C. (1982). Teaching mothers though videotape moeling to change their children’s behaviors. J. Pediatr. Psychol. 7: 279-294.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.602

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.