Intervención breve en accidentados con alcoholemia positiva desde un centro de traumatología

A. Rodríguez-Martos, A. Plasència, M. Escayola, J. Martí, J. Ferrando, Ll. Torralba


Objetivos: E1 objetivo principal de la investigación es comprobar la efectividad de la intervención breve para reducir el consumo de alcohol en accidentados de tráfico adultos con alcoholemia positiva y sin dependencia del alcohol. En objetivo de la etapa piloto es comprobar la viabilidad estructural del proyecto (capacitación de los profesionales y viabilidad del cribado e intervención desde un centro de traumatología, así como una estimación aproximada de la prevalencia y perfil de los lesionados de tráfico con presencia de alcohol. Material: Se elabora un programa de formación con material de apoyo. Se aplica un método de detección del alcohol en saliva en lesionados de tráfico que acuden a urgencias de traumatología. A los pacientes con saliva positiva se les ofrece una intervención breve. Se recoge la opinión del personal sobre la eficacia percibida y viabilidad estimada del proyecto gobal (cribado e intervención) mediante cuestionarios de opinión.. Se estudian la prevalencia y perfil de los pacientes con saliva positiva a partir del análisis comparativo de variables seleccionadas. Resultados: El personal entrenado considera (80%) útil y adecuada la formación recibida. Las enfermeras consideran (89%) que el método es fácil, no plantea demasiados problemas (55%) y es bien aceptado por el paciente (53%). El personal entrenado se ha sentido cómodo y eficiente (67%) al realizar la intervención. 261 de 264 pacientes aceptaron el cribado y el 11% tenía alcohol en saliva. Sólo 2 pacientes rechazaron la intervención, que fue practicada en 16 lesionados. Los pacientes con saliva positiva acuden más en fines de semana (p 0,005) y quedan ingresados con mayor frecuencia (p 0,05) que aquéllos con saliva negativa. Conclusión: el programa está bien estructurado, es viable y aceptado por el paciente. El estudio definitivo incluirá la determinación del alcohol en orina, en pacientes con saliva seca, y reforzará el cribado en fines de semana y politraumáticos.

Palabras clave

lesionados de tráfico; centro de traumatología; formación; cribado de alcohol; intervención breve

Texto completo:



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