Intervenciones de fortalecimiento familiar para la prevención del consumo de sustancias en hijos de padres adictos

Karol L. Kumpfer, Jeannette L. Johnson


La literatura científica demuestra sistemáticamente que, aunque los hijos de consumidores de sustancias sufren riesgos biológicos, psicológicos y ambientales, los efectos de estos riesgos se pueden reducir con el empleo de intervenciones y tratamientos efectivos. La investigación ha documentado de forma fehaciente reducciones en la disfunción familiar e infantil cuando se utilizan con coherencia programas de intervención familiar. Aunque se han desarrollado cierto número de ensayos efectivos basados en la familia, sólo unos pocos se han diseñado específicamente para hijos de padres consumidores de sustancias. Y únicamente dos se han comprobado en pruebas de control aleatorias: el Streghtening Families Program y el Focus on the Family. El Streghtening Families Program (Programa de Fortalecimiento Familiar) ha demostrado estadísticamente reducciones significativas en la disfunción familiar e infantil entre varios grupos etnoculturales cuando se utiliza de forma coherente. Los programas de postgrado clínicos y avanzados deben abordar el entrenamiento en estas prácticas basadas en la evidencia y en la forma de adaptar estos modelos para que sean más sensibles culturalmente y apropiados al género y la edad con el fin de que atiendan a una creciente población de familias necesitadas.

Palabras clave

programas de padres; prevención familiar; hijos de alcohólicos; hijos de consumidores de sustancias; prevención; política de prevención; abuso de drogas; formación clínica

Texto completo:



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