Fases de la recuperación psicológica en pacientes dependientes del alcohol tras un tratamiento intensivo: un seguimiento de 4 años

Francisco Arias, Ana Sion, Regina Espinosa, Rosa Jurado-Barba, Marta Marin, Andrés Martínez Maldonado, Gabriel Rubio

Resumen


El objetivo de este trabajo es comprobar si las recaídas dificultan la secuencia de la recuperación psicológica y reconstruir la secuencia de la recuperación de pacientes graves que solicitan tratamiento. Los participantes fueron 159 pacientes tratados durante dos años en un programa ambulatorio intensivo y tras ser dados de alta fueron seguidos durante cuatro años. En función de la presencia o no de recaída durante el seguimiento se configuraron dos grupos, el de abstinentes (n = 80) y el de pacientes que recaen (n = 79). Las evaluaciones se realizaron: basal, al alta del tratamiento, al 2.º y 4.º año de seguimiento. Las variables fueron: conductas de evitación, ansiedad, depresión, impulsividad y sentido de la vida. Se incluyó un grupo de control (n = 74) que fue evaluado con la misma cadencia que los pacientes. Los resultados indican una recuperación más lenta en el grupo con recaídas frente a los abstinentes, en todas las dimensiones psicológicas y los períodos estudiados. A los dos años de seguimiento, los pacientes abstinentes obtuvieron puntuaciones en depresión similares a los controles, además de puntuaciones superiores en sentido de la vida (MiL) a partir del final del tratamiento. Al menos en pacientes con dependencia grave del alcohol, nuestros resultados apoyan una secuencia de recuperación que podría continuar más allá de los cuatro años de seguimiento. Se inicia con la evitación de situaciones de riesgo y continúa con el resto de las dimensiones (ansiedad, depresión, impulsividad).

Palabras clave


Dependencia de alcohol; Recuperación; Sentido de la vida; Abstinencia; Sintomatología afectiva; Impulsividad.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1575

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