Prevención ambiental de drogas en la Unión Europea. ¿Por qué es tan impopular este tipo de prevención?

Gregor Burkhart


Los adolescentes pasan por transformaciones en su funcionamiento neuro-comportamental y psicosocial que resultan en la predominancia de estar conforme con las normas de sus pares en detrimento del control cognitivo de sus impulsos. Esto puede explicar que en la presencia de sus pares los comportamientos de los adolescentes no son influenciados por lo que saben sobre los riesgos y las consecuencias. Esta observación tiene implicaciones para la prevención porque destaca la importancia de estrategias que activamente influencian los medios ambientes donde se da el consumo de substancias y donde las normas de los jóvenes se forman y mantienen. No obstante, a pesar de la falta de pruebas, las estrategias meramente informativas siguen siendo practicadas a larga escala en Europa. Las razones de esta situación se discuten en este editorial. Se propone también una definición de prevención ambiental: estrategias que alteran las normas y los ambientes físicos, sociales y económicos sin basarse en persuasión. Se discuten las delimitaciones de este definición con la de la promoción de la salud y las pruebas de eficacia disponibles así como la información sobre la puesta en marcha de la prevención ambiental. Estos dados no apoyan las afirmaciones de varios estados miembros que sus políticas preventivas englobarían todas las substancias y comportamientos adictivos. En general, mientras que las medidas ambientales estén ganando importancia en Europa, se encuentran más en el Norte de Europa y se notan sobretodo en tres áreas: a nivel macro en forma de políticas de control de alcohol y tabaco, en estrategias de mejorar el clima y ethos en centros educativos y en políticas locales para ambientes de diversión.

Palabras clave

ambiental; prevención; normas sociales; adolescentes; neurociencias

Texto completo:



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