Tipos de violencia en la infancia que inciden en el abuso y dependencia de cannabis entre adolescentes: una revisión sistemática y metaanálisis

Lucía Martínez-Mota, Graciela Jiménez-Rubio, Olivia Tania Hernández Hernández, Nayeli Páez-Martínez


El uso recreativo de cannabis ha incrementado en todo el mundo, principalmente en la población adolescente. Se ha propuesto que la adversidad en la infancia contribuye al consumo de esta droga. El objetivo de esta revisión sistemática y metaanálisis fue analizar el efecto de diferentes tipos de violencia en la infancia sobre el consumo de cannabis en la adolescencia. Se realizó una búsqueda en diferentes bases de datos (PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Ovid y CONRICyT) usando los términos de búsqueda: ((“Cannabis” OR “Marijuana Smoking” OR “Marijuana Abuse”) AND (“Child Abuse” OR “Domestic Violence” AND “Adolescent”)), considerando todos los artículos publicados hasta el 3 de noviembre de 2017. Se calcularon los Odds Ratio (OR) del consumo de cannabis en adolescentes, para los diferentes tipos de abuso infantil, así como sus intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC 95%). Se identificaron seis estudios, que incluyeron 10 843 adolescentes de uno u otro sexo. La asociación entre la violencia y el abuso/dependencia de cannabis en la adolescencia mostró los siguientes valores: abuso físico (OR: 1,58, IC 95% [1,01–2,46]), abuso sexual (OR: 2,35, IC 95% [1,64–3,35]), y ser testigo de violencia (OR: 3,22, IC 95% [0,63–16,54]). Los resultados muestran que el abuso sexual o físico durante etapas tempranas de la vida aumenta el riesgo de consumo de cannabis en la adolescencia. Los estudios que evaluaron otras formas de violencia fueron escasos. Los resultados destacan la importancia de diseñar programas integrales para reducir el uso y dependencia de cannabis mediante estrategias enfocadas a la prevención de la violencia en la infancia.

Palabras clave

Uso de cannabis; Abuso infantil; Infancia; Adolescencia; Violencia.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1050

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