Avances en el desarrollo de productos biológicos para el tratamiento de la adicción a las drogas y las sobredosis

Iván D. Montoya


La adicción a las drogas es un trastorno complejo que requiere diversos abordajes, entre los que está el uso de tratamientos farmacológicos. Actualmente, estas terapias se basan en “pequeñas” moléculas o sustancias químicas que atraviesan la barrera hematoencefálica y actúan sobre los neurotransmisores. Desafortunadamente, con frecuencia no tienen la eficacia deseada o pueden causar efectos secundarios no deseados, que afectan especialmente el sistema nervioso central (SNC). Un enfoque novedoso es el uso de productos biológicos para el tratamiento de la adicción a las drogas. Los productos biológicos son generalmente moléculas complejas y “grandes”, que no atraviesan la barrera hematoencefálica y por tanto, no tienen efectos sobre el SNC. En principio, parece que estos productos impiden el acceso de las drogas de abuso al cerebro, con lo cual se previene la activación de los sistemas de recompensa del cerebro y, en consecuencia, se produce la extinción de la adicción. Los tratamientos biológicos incluyen inmunoterapias, tales como las vacunas o los anticuerpos, así como también las enzimas. La aparición de nuevos productos, así como métodos de producción más modernos y eficientes, está posibilitando enormes oportunidades para avanzar en el descubrimiento y desarrollo de productos biológicos para el tratamiento de las adicciones, así como también de las sobredosis por drogas. Estos productos incluyen nuevas vacunas con mayor especificidad y capacidad de producir anticuerpos, nuevos métodos y técnicas para producir vacunas y anticuerpos, y nuevas enzimas butyrylcholinesterases con una alta eficiencia para metabolizar cocaína. El propósito de este artículo es proporcionar una visión general del desarrollo de productos biológicos para el tratamiento de adicción a las drogas y la sobredosis.

Palabras clave

Productos biológicos; vacunas; anticuerpos; enzimas; abuso de drogas; sobredosis

Texto completo:



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.101

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