Del uso no problemático a la adicción al móvil: Perfiles de impulsividad

Ana Sánchez-Kuhn, Jorge L. Puga, Pilar Flores, Ana María Ruiz-Ruano


El uso problemático del móvil (PSU, por sus siglas en inglés) es un comportamiento incontrolable que dificulta la capacidad para detenerlo, pese a las potenciales consecuencias negativas. Este comportamiento excesivo ha sido considerado en el campo de la investigación como una adicción conductual, ya que la literatura ha demostrado características comunes con otras adicciones conductuales además de que está mediado por la impulsividad. Sin embargo, la impulsividad es un constructo multidimensional cuyas dimensiones específicas se relacionan de modo diferencial con los distintos tipos de adicción. Por consiguiente, el presente estudio pretende explorar los perfiles de uso del móvil dependiendo de las dimensiones de impulsividad. Para ello, se registró el uso diario del móvil, el nivel de adicción al móvil (SAS-SV) y el patrón de impulsividad a través de los cinco rasgos de personalidad impulsiva (UPPS-P) de 412 adultos (con una media de edad de 31,91 años, DT = 11,70, incluyendo 108 hombres y 304 mujeres). El análisis de clúster mostró la existencia de tres tipos de perfiles: uno sin PSU; uno con impulsividad excesiva, pero sin uso adictivo del móvil, presentando solo sintomatología de pérdida de control; y otro con impulsividad excesiva y patrones adictivos al móvil, caracterizados principalmente por los rasgos impulsivos de urgencia negativa, urgencia positiva y falta de premeditación. Por tanto, este estudio muestra las dimensiones de personalidad impulsiva que diferencian un uso excesivo del adictivo al móvil. Esta información es útil para el desarrollo de programas de prevención e intervención mejor adaptados a estos perfiles de comportamiento.

Palabras clave

Uso problemático del móvil; uso excesivo del móvil; adicción al móvil; impulsividad; análisis clúster.

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