Disponibilidad y promoción de alcohol según la tipología de los locales y las condiciones socioeconómicas del área

Andrea Pastor, Albert Espelt, Joan R. Villalbí, Lucía Moure, Sonsoles Fuentes, Niamh K. Shortt, Roberto Valiente, Luisa N. Borrell, Manuel Franco, Xisca Sureda


El objetivo fue caracterizar la disponibilidad y promoción de alcohol asociados a los locales de venta y consumo de alcohol en Madrid, así como explorar las diferencias en su distribución en función de la tipología del local y las características socioeconómicas del área. Se utilizó el instrumento OHCITIES para caracterizar locales situados en 42 secciones censales de Madrid durante 2016. Se registró la densidad de locales y el número de locales con amplios horarios de apertura (12 o más horas). Se registró cualquier tipo de promoción asociada al local visible desde el exterior. Se compararon los porcentajes de características de disponibilidad y promoción asociada a los locales de consumo y venta de alcohol utilizando el test de chi cuadrado y la prueba exacta de Fisher. Se estimó la densidad de disponibilidad y promoción por sección censal y se exploró su distribución en función de las características socioeconómicas del área mediante el test de Kruskal-Wallis. Se registraron 324 locales, 241 de consumo y 83 de venta. La mayoría tenía un horario amplio de apertura (73,77%) y algún elemento promocional (89,51%). Los locales de consumo tenían horarios más amplios de apertura y más elementos promocionales que los de venta (p < 0,001). Se encontraron mayor densidad de locales, amplitud de horarios y elementos promocionales en áreas de nivel socioeconómico alto (todos p < 0,001). La disponibilidad y promoción estuvieron asociadas con los locales de venta y consumo de alcohol en Madrid. Futuras políticas cuyo objetivo sea la prevención del consumo de alcohol deben tener en cuenta la influencia de los tipos de locales y las características socioeconómicas del área en la distribución de la disponibilidad y promoción de alcohol.

Palabras clave

Disponibilidad de alcohol; Locales de venta de alcohol; Promoción de alcohol; Nivel socioeconómico; Desigualdades

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1367

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