Violencia en consumidores de drogas ilícitas reclutados en centros específicos de tratamiento

Elisabet Arribas-Ibar, Josep Maria Suelves, Albert Sanchez-Niubò, Judit Tirado-Muñoz, Antonia Domingo-Salvany, M Teresa Brugal


El uso ilícito de drogas se ha asociado a lesiones producidas por violencia. Nuestro objetivo es estimar en usuarios de drogas ilícitas, la prevalencia de violencia en los últimos 12 meses y estudiar la superposición víctima-agresor. Se reclutaron personas consumidoras de drogas ilícitas (502) en centros de tratamiento de drogas. La violencia se evaluó mediante cuatro preguntas sobre victimización y una sobre agresión referidas a los últimos 12 meses. Las asociaciones entre violencia y aspectos sociodemográficos, consumo de sustancias, delincuencia y mercado de drogas ilegales se analizaron con modelos de regresión de Poisson. El 49,6% de los hombres y el 54,7% de las mujeres reportaron victimización; la agresión un 36,5% y 27,6%, respectivamente. Se observaron prevalencias elevadas de víctima y de ofensor entre los participantes con actividades marginales de generación de ingresos y con uso de riesgo de alcohol. La victimización fue más probable en las mujeres que usaban vía parenteral y entre los hombres con consumo precoz de drogas ilegales, policonsumo de drogas ilegales y antecedentes penitenciarios. La agresión fue más probable entre los hombres receptores de tratamiento psicológico, consumo precoz de drogas ilegales, policonsumo de drogas ilegales y antecedentes penitenciarios, y entre las mujeres, aquellas que reportaron consumo precoz de drogas ilegales y que habían traficado. Se encontró una alta prevalencia de violencia en los usuarios de drogas ilícitas, especialmente entre aquellos involucrados en actividades de mercado y delincuencia. Los centros de tratamiento de drogas deberían considerar evaluar los antecedentes y los signos de violencia, y promover estrategias de salud comunitaria.

Palabras clave

Drogas ilegales; Violencia; Crimen; Género; Víctima-agresor

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