Trastorno bipolar y trastorno por uso de sustancias. Estudio Madrid sobre prevalencia de patología dual

Francisco Arias, Nestor Szerman, Pablo Vega, Beatriz Mesías, Ignacio Basurte, David Rentero

Resumen


La comorbilidad entre trastorno bipolar y trastorno por uso de sustancias (TUS) es de las más relevantes dentro del espectro de la patología dual por su prevalencia y sus repercusiones evolutivas y sociosanitarias. Nuestro objetivo fue estudiar las características de los pacientes con diagnóstico de trastorno bipolar y trastorno por uso de sustancias procedentes del Estudio Madrid sobre prevalencia de patología dual en sujetos en tratamiento en el servicio sanitario público. La muestra procede de pacientes en tratamiento en las redes públicas de salud mental y de tratamiento para las adicciones de la Comunidad de Madrid. Los sujetos fueron evaluados con la entrevista Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) para el diagnóstico de los trastornos mentales y con la escala Personality Disorder Questionnaire (PDQ) para el diagnóstico de los trastornos de personalidad. De los 837 pacientes incluidos, 174 tenían un diagnóstico a lo largo de la vida de trastorno bipolar, 83 con trastorno bipolar tipo I y 91 del tipo II. La mayoría de ellos tenían algún diagnóstico de TUS. En la red de salud mental, de los 208 participantes, 21 tenían un diagnóstico de trastorno bipolar, de estos el 13 (61.9%) tenían un diagnóstico de TUS y se consideraron duales, mientras que en el resto de los pacientes de salud mental el 33.2% tenían un diagnóstico comórbido de TUS (p = 0.03). En los centros de drogas, de los 629 pacientes valorados, un 24.3% (n = 153) tenían un diagnóstico de trastorno bipolar. El subgrupo de pacientes con trastorno bipolar tenía mayor prevalencia de adicción al alcohol y a la cocaína que el resto de los pacientes. Además, la edad de inicio en el consumo de alcohol era más precoz entre los adictos bipolares que entre los adictos no bipolares. Los bipolares duales era un subgrupo con mayor comorbilidad con trastornos de personalidad, otros trastornos mentales como trastornos de ansiedad y mayor riesgo de suicidio. Estos datos apoyan que el alcohol principalmente y la cocaína son las drogas más relacionadas con la presencia de un trastorno bipolar, pero al ser un estudio transversal no se pueden extraer conclusiones etiológicas.

Palabras clave


patología dual; prevalencia; trastorno bipolar; alcohol; cocaína; cannabis; opiáceos

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.782