Diagnóstico dual en médicos residentes: una revisión sistemática

Sebastián Vargas-Cáceres, María Fernanda Mantilla, Germán Ortega, Eugeni Bruguera, Miquel Casas, Josep-Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, María Dolores Braquehais

Resumen


El período de preparación como médico residente (en español, MIR) suele asociarse a una elevada sobrecarga emocional tanto por las nuevas exigencias profesionales como por otros factores psicosociales. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer las características del diagnóstico dual en los MIRs. Se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática de las bases de datos MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science y Google Scholar, seleccionando artículos publicados en inglés y español entre 1984 y 2017. Se obtuvieron 2.415 artículos: se excluyeron 2.276 por título, 105 por el contenido del resumen y 17 por el contenido del artículo. En la revisión final se incluyeron 17 artículos. La prevalencia de clínica depresiva varía del 10,2% al 70%, de ansiedad entre 13,2% y 33,9%, de ideación suicida entre 6,7% y 25% mientras que el consumo de riesgo de alcohol se encuentra aproximadamente en torno al 20%, entre 2% y 13,4% se auto-prescriben medicamentos psicótropos y del 2,7% al 14% consumen otras sustancias. La mayoría de los estudios analizados adolecen de limitaciones metodológicas importantes lo que dificulta una adecuada comprensión del fenómeno. Las variaciones en las cifras de prevalencia tienen que ver con la disparidad de escalas y de criterios diagnósticos empleados, entre otros factores. Aún así, los estudios muestran que el consumo de alcohol y/u otras sustancias se correlacionan positivamente con el malestar emocional en los MIRs. Se hace necesario mejorar el conocimiento del diagnóstico dual en este grupo profesional para que se puedan prevenir y tratar sus consecuencias de manera más eficaz.

Palabras clave


Médico residente; Trastorno por uso de sustancias; Trastornos mentales; Diagnóstico dual; Auto-tratamiento

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1253

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